The last Portuguese were expelled in 1660. At Banten in 1680, the Dutch expelled the British and established a monopoly on the Indonesian pepper trade by helping an ambitious prince overthrow his father. The Dutch made vast profits selling nutmeg, mace, cloves and other spices.
Where did the Dutch get their spices from?
The Dutch maintained their monopoly on the nutmeg trade for two and half centuries, until the late 18th century when a French missionary smuggled nutmeg seedlings out of the Dutch East Indies and they were replanted in Madagascar, Mauritius and Zanzibar.
What commodities were the Dutch seeking in Indonesia?
The Dutch introduced coffee, tea, cacao, tobacco and rubber and large expanses of Java became plantations cultivated by Javanese peasants, collected by Chinese intermediaries, and sold on overseas markets by European merchants.
Why were the Dutch Interested in Indonesia?
The first Europeans to establish themselves in Indonesia were the Portuguese in 1512. Following disruption of Dutch access to spices, the first Dutch expedition set sail for the East Indies in 1595 to access spices directly from Asia. When it made a 400% profit on its return, other Dutch expeditions soon followed.
Why did the Dutch leave India?
Netherland had got independence from Spanish Empire in 1581. Due to war of independence, the ports in Spain for Dutch were closed. This forced them to find out a route to India and east to enable direct trade.
How did the Portuguese lose control of the spice trade to the Dutch?
The Battle of Carracks Island in 1615 off the coast of Malacca, destroyed Portuguese naval power in the Southeast Indies leading to the loss of naval supremacy to the Dutch, in the crucial route between Goa and Macau.
What is the oldest spice known to man?
ONE OF THE OLDEST SPICES KNOWN TO MAN. Cinnamon has been traded around the entire world since before the 1500s. Indonesian sailors began trading cinnamon to Madagascar and the east coast of Africa in the first century AD.
Are Portuguese and Dutch the same?
Portuguese in the Netherlands (also known as Portuguese Dutch or the Dutch Portuguese Community) are the citizens or residents of the Netherlands whose ethnic origins lie in Portugal.
Does Indonesia have slaves?
In Indonesia there are 210 970 people living in slavery. Although Indonesia has some of the laws governing modern slavery are included in the Law of Anti-Trafficking.
Is slavery legal in Indonesia?
Summary of Domestic Prohibition
There appears to be no legislation in place in Indonesia which prohibits institutions and practices similar to slavery, although adoption through the promise of consideration for the purpose of exploitation is criminalised under article 5 of Law 21.